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If we would travel back in time 15 million years, we could see that the so-called gap-volcanic activity many times cracked the earth’s crust, and due to the enormous eruptions the surface was covered with volcanic ash and magma.

The magma rose to the surface through repeated eruptions, the ash formed a deposit and the various sized magmatic blocks were embedded in. During the millions of years it became volcanic rock, which is called in geology the ‘agglomerate’. Later on from the volcanic ash a less hard volcanic tuff evolved, which can be seen by the rock gate at the Magda Spring.

During the next set of millions of years the temperature differences further crumbled and powdered the surface layer. High amounts of rainfalls crushed down the landscape and while transporting debris, it carved out valleys, than slowed its stream down and deposited its debris in the forms of flat table-like creations.  We can see nice examples of that above the Magda Spring, at the Telgárthy Meadow.

We can access these sights by walking down on the side of the Apátkúti Brook gurgling next to the King Matthias Street, towards the Miklós Bertényi Botanical Garden. It is worth to share some details about this brook. They used to call it the Mill Brook, because in the 18-19th century they were using its energy for the local mill and sawmill. Following the forestry path we can reach the masonry dam and the small artificial pond. The next sight of the valley is the Devil’s Mill Waterfall, where we can admire the brook water’s forming energy. If we have a close look we can see, that the petite brook cuts itself into the hard andesite rocks. So it is very easy to imagine how the old Danube was washing and splitting the Visegrád Mountains from the Börzsöny Mountains. Imagine that the birth of the world-famous Danube Bend was a result of colossal geological struggles!

At the Magda Spring we can see another interesting thing. If we turn our back to the spring, above the brook we can see a steep yellow loess wall, deposited on a purplish-greyish rock. This proofs that some time earlier the Danube was also flowing here, and in one of its quiet bays it was depositing its debris. We can see a similar loess wall at the same level, 180 m above sea level, in the hillsides of Visegrád-Lepence area. We arrive to our next stop after a 1,5 km walk, when we reach the rock walls of Devil’s Mine. We can see nice samples of the spore-bearing and seed-bearing plants located on deep walls. The current vegetation cover of the Pilis and the rich forest emerged in the period, when the temperature started to rise after the second ice age. On the colder northern side beech and blue beech is typical, whilst on the warmer southern side oak and moss-caped oak cover the forests. Among the loose leafage trees the surface is covered with herbs, mainly with meadow-grass and fescue-grass, blackthorn, cornel-berry, wild rose and sloe bushes. The sunniest parts are covered with blackberries and nettle. At one time wild cave-bear and Turanian deer used to live in the forests of our area, but their traces can only be seen in the Pilis caves. In the reign of King Matthias they were hunting in the nearby forests for European bison, brown bear, wolf and lynx. The lynx returned in the 1990s, but we cannot find any traces of it any more. Among the hoofed animals the deer is still the king of the forest. We might meet some friendly and shy deers during our Pilis excursions. The sight of the dark-skinned wild boar always thrills the hikers, but it is good to know that the wild-boar will panic and run away first, if it senses any human being. It is interesting that 130 years ago there were no wild sheep in our forests, nowadays there are several wild sheep spotted by the visitors. Often the Corsican bighorn sheep also visits our young forests. Among the fur-bearing animals the biggest one is the always-hiding wildcat. The night hunter, with its black and white striped fur can be very rarely seen, but the similarly night hunter badger can be often spotted next to the asphalted roads. Everybody knows the red-furred fox. The yellow waist coated marten with its long bushy tail, and the very similar looking white waist coated beech-marten are hard working insect-killers. Very often the rare gymnast of our forests, the squirrel can be seen in the pine-forests of the Botanical Garden. The biggest birds of pray of the area are the eagles. Some fish hawks occasionally visit our area, and besides these we can also admire the graceful volley of the mousing buzzard. The black raven became more common from the 1970s; we can often hear its typical ululation. Among the nocturnal birds of pray the owl is the most significant. We can see happy flocks of small songsters during our Pilis excursions.